The absence of menstrual bleeding for six months or more.
A cycle in which ovaries do not release an egg. Can occur with or without menstruation.
A lab technique that breaks down the outer proteins of an embryo to help it implant into the uterus.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
Technologies such as Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), and fertility medications that are used to treat infertility.
A condition when a man does not have any measurable sperm in semen.
Beta hCG Pregnancy Test
Blood pregnancy test that measures the level of the hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Also known simply as a 'beta', this is the test that is administered to IVF patients following the 'two week wait' to verify success or failure of an IVF cycle.
Also called a Chemical Pregnancy, this is a pregnancy that is miscarried very early, before the pregnancy can be seen on ultrasound, but after the pregnancy can be detected by a blood test. In a biochemical pregnancy, the embryo implants, but doesn't develop past a few days or weeks.
Ending a cycle of ART due to lack of fertilization, problems with follicle development, or other causes.
A strand of DNA that carries genetic information. People have 23 pairs.
A pregnancy that is confirmed by ultrasound. This differentiates a Clinical Pregnancy from a Biochemical or 'Chemical' Pregnancy.
Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid)
A fertility medication that stimulates ovaries to release one, or sometimes more than one, egg(s) per month.
A gland located in the ovary that produces progesterone after ovulation and during early pregnancy.
A round of fertility (usually IVF) treatment. A normal cycle takes approximately one month to complete.
Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
A procedure in which a physician dilates the cervix to remove tissue –- often the uterine lining or early abnormal pregnancy –- from the uterus.
Unfertilized eggs collected from healthy young female donors, fertilized, then transferred to another woman's (recipient's) uterus in an IVF treatment cycle.
Sperm collected from healthy young male donors to fertilize eggs. Collected sperm is normally frozen for six months or more and often used in In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) or in Intrauterine Insemination (IUI).
When an embryo implants outside of the uterus it is called an ectopic pregnancy. These pregnancies can cause severe complications.
The process in which eggs are removed from the ovarian follicles via a thin needle for use in an IVF procedure.
The first stage of human development, the fertilized egg is referred to as an embryo for 8 weeks, after which, it is referred to as a fetus.
During IVF, the step in which the embryo(s) is transferred into the uterus.
A disorder in which the uterine lining (endometrium) is present in areas outside of the uterus, such as the ovaries, peritoneal cavity and fallopian tubes.
Tissue that lines the uterus.
The controlled freezing of sperm, eggs or embryos to preserve them for future fertility treatment.
When the sperm unites with the egg.
A benign tumor, usually occurring in the uterine wall.
Fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries that each hold an egg. The follicles secrete hormones related to the menstrual cycle.
The menstrual cycle’s first phase, which starts when menstrual bleeding begins and follicles begin to mature.
A type of hormone that stimulates follicular and egg development and is used during ovulation induction.
Chemical messengers that regulate activities of organs.
A condition in which the body lacks enough thyroid hormone. This can lead to fatigue, impaired fertility and a slow metabolism.
An X-ray procedure to observe the uterus and fallopian tubes.
A procedure in which a thin viewing tool is inserted through the cervix to examine the uterus.
When a fertilized egg embeds in the lining of the uterus it is called implantation.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
A process of fertilization where the egg and the sperm are combined in a laboratory to create a viable embryo, which will be implanted into the uterus. More commonly, IVF refers to the entire treatment process. “In Vitro” means “in glass” and refers to the glass of the laboratory dish.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Injecting a single sperm directly into an egg; often used during IVF to ensure fertilization of eggs.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
An Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) where specially prepared sperm is introduced directly into the uterus.
A test that screens for possible genetic abnormalities through the analysis of chromosomes.
Laparoscopic procedure to examine the fallopian tubes, uterus, pelvis and ovaries; performed through a small incision in the abdomen.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Surge
Phase in the menstrual cycle when Luteinizing Hormone is secreted in a surge, indicating that ovulation is imminent. The LH Surge can be measured by ovulation predictor kits.
The final stage of the menstrual cycle. It begins after ovulation and ends with pregnancy or menses.
Loss of a fetus or embryo; occurs in approximately 20% of pregnancies.
A slight cramping or pain in the abdomen associated with ovulation.
The surgical procedure that removes fibroids from the uterine wall.
Infrequent or light menstruation.
When semen contains low levels of sperm.
The female sex cell; also called an egg, ovum or gamete.
A fluid-filled sac located in the ovary. Ovarian cysts may or may not cause issues.
Inadequate functioning of the ovary; often associated with FSH levels.
When the ovary releases the mature egg during the menstrual cycle.
The use of fertility drugs to stimulate the maturation and release of eggs.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
A metabolic and hormonal imbalance that is characterized by multiple small cysts on the ovaries. It is often accompanied by issues such as infertility, facial and abdominal hair growth, menstrual problems and weight gain.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) and Screening (PGS)
Genetic testing procedures for embryos created via IVF.
A hormone produced by the ovary that prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
When a woman experiences two or more miscarried pregnancies.
Semen Analysis (SA)
Examining semen to assess sperm count, motility (movement) and morphology (shape).
The male reproductive cell.
Testicular/Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
A technique for sperm retrieval where sperm are extracted with a needle.
Technique that uses a device inserted into the vagina to view the uterus, follicles, fetus, etc.
A condition that can sometimes lead to male infertility; caused by varicose veins in the scrotum that raise the temperature of the testicles.